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Animation, Games and Visual Effects

Application closing date 25 April 2017, employment start date 5 June 2017
Centre for Digital Entertainment (CDE)
University of Bath or Bournemouth University
The ESPRC doctoral training Centre for Digital Entertainment (CDE) is seeking candidates of academic excellence to undertake fully-funded research in computer games, animation, visual effects, and other topics in the graphics/vision area. Candidates may register at the University of Bath or at Bournemouth University. This programme offers all you need for a research career in the games, visual effects or computer animation industries, as well as the medical, defence, cultural and other sectors. These four-year doctoral studentships provide: In the first year, a tax-free EPSRC stipend paid at the EPSRC EngD rate for the academic year (currently £15,796 in 2016/17) Once your placement commences, you could also receive up to £4,000 per annum, provided the company has entered into a contractual agreement to provide an appropriate contribution to the university. Tuition fees, worth approximately £5,000 per annum Generous funding of around £10,000 for conferences and equipment plus additional training and cohort activities. We offer a unique programme starting with a fully-structured taught first year. This includes Master Classes from our company experts, with courses such as computer animation and games, visual effects, machine learning and AI and a growing emphasis on research as the year unfolds. You will then join the research team of one of our cutting-edge companies for three years, to research towards their next-generation projects. You will learn a great deal about the industry and emerge with a CV that no conventional research student can match. Our students are always looking for new things to get involved with. They take part in games jams, summer schools and international conferences, recently including group trips to USA, Paris, Hong Kong, Australia and Toronto. Students can pitch their ideas to leading computer games, animation and visual effects companies. Our 50 current students are in companies such as BBC R&D, Electronic Arts, Sony Entertainment, Disney, Double Negative Visual Effects, Ninja Theory, Natural Motion, and organisations from other sectors which require digital technology expertise such as BMT Defence Services, Emteq, TotalSim, Cityscape, Plymouth Marine Labs, National Trust, National Museums Liverpool and Imperial War Museums. All applications are assessed on both your research potential and academic excellence. You will need a strong first degree in Computer Science, Mathematics, Engineering, Physics or related subjects. Excellent technical ability and programming skills are essential. You must be a citizen of the UK/European Union; or be able to prove you have "indefinite leave to remain" in the UK. To apply, or for more information, click here.

ENGINEERING FOR A SAFER WORLD

Application closing date 26 July 2017, employment start date 1 October 2017
CDT in Quantitative Non-destructive Evaluation
Imperial College London and the Universities of Bristol, Manchester, Nottingham, Strathclyde and Warwick
Applications are invited for research engineers to work with UK-based companies and universities from the world-leading Research Centre in Non-Destructive Evaluation.  Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) employs sensor and imaging technology to assess the condition of components, plant and engineering structures of all kinds during manufacture and in-service. This key technology area underpins the safe and sustainable future of a broad cross-section of UK industry including power generation, oil & gas, aerospace, defence and high value manufacturing.  Novel NDE technologies are required to meet new and emerging safety, environmental and engineering challenges. Addressing these challenges will involve a diverse range of research areas, including topics such as: advanced sensor and imaging; large-area methods; automation & robotics; modelling & reliability; remote & non-contact NDE; new inspection technologies; data fusion & visualisation; and permanently installed sensors. We have funding for a number of EngD projects this year, with industrial sponsors including end-users as well as companies in the NDE supply chain.

OPTIMISING MOBILITY BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER-COATED PACKAGING STEEL, PROTACT (UNDERSTANDING, MEASURE, IMPROVE)

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Steel food and beverage cans are generally coated with a lacquer to provide improved food preservation.  These “epoxy-type” lacquers, until recently mainly based on bisphenol A (BPA), applied to tinplate have been used very successfully for many years. However, due to recent (food) safety concerns about the use of BPA lacquers, legislation has been introduced in Europe banning its use in cans.  Obviously, the result  of the new legislation and public sentiments is that brand owners are demanding cans with a BPA-free coating. Polyester laminates (like Tata’s Protact material) are uniquely suited to solve all current (BPA) and future food safety issues. Next to these aspects, Protact also has a strongly positive effect on VOC emissions, water usage and CO2 footprint at the canmaker. With large new investments being realised at Tata Steel, the understanding of material properties is essential for Tata Steel to support the use of Protact in the market. The theme of this proposal is to optimize performance of Protact during processing at customers in processes such as cutting and stacking. Due to the different friction and surface properties of Protact compared to the classic materials, the mobility of the sheets is different and sheets of Protact tend to stick together resulting in sub-optimized stacking behavior of the sheets and/or bad de-stacking when the sheets are further fed to presses, to be converted into final product. This effect could be related to the actual interaction between the sheets, but also effects like static loading can play a role. Once the mechanism is understood and a suitable measuring method developed, also formulation and optimization of the coating would be part of the project.

DEVELOPMENT OF SLAG CORROSION TEST

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Slag corrosion is one of the main factors influencing service life of refractories. Currently available laboratory tests do not fully represent the phenomena and only partially indicate resistance of refractory materials. Furthermore, the existing tests are energy intensive, time consuming and lack standardisation, which means that generation of conclusive results is very difficult. Comparison of different refractory qualities alone does not satisfy the requirements of a process of material selection in the highly competitive industry. In depth research of the mechanisms is required to understand the slag attack in industrial conditions and design testing procedures corresponding to production processes and giving quantitative results where possible. The project will involve studying slag corrosion mechanism in different steelmaking vessels including converter, steel ladle, degasser, and tundish. Comparison between existing testing procedures including induction furnace test, rotary furnace test and slag dipping test will be essential part of the investigation. Analysis of the results of various tests will help define advantages and disadvantages of the existing testing procedures and improve understanding of the differences between the production conditions and the laboratory tests. The project will concentrate on development of a standard slag corrosion test producing objective and quantitative result. During the course of the EngD, a special training will be provided aiming at development of a specialist in physical testing of refractories.

CHEMICALLY RESILIENT AND RADIATION HARD ESD COATINGS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Qioptiq Space Technology (QST) is the only global supplier of space qualified cover glass which is used to protect solar arrays from radiation damage. The cover glass slides are supplied with a range of coatings that can include a very thin transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for protection against electrostatic discharge (ESD) and antireflection (AR) coatings to improve transmission. Currently the preferred TCO is indium tin oxide (ITO) but aluminium zinc oxide (AZ0) could be preferable with its superior radiation hardness. However, AZO is more chemically reactive than ITO and reacts with the preferred AR coating material, magnesium fluoride. There is also a challenge in making the AR coating resilient to erosion from ion thrusters. Project Aims The proposed project will investigate the solid state reaction between AZO and MgF2 to understand the corrosion mechanism and to test solutions. The research student will use a range of materials characterisation techniques such as X-ray Photo-electric Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with chemical analysis using Energy Dispersive X-ray (XRD) analysis to study the surface and interface of ITO/ MgF2 and AZO/MgF2. New combinations of TCO and AR coatings will be investigated for their broad-band optical properties and compatibility with triple junction III-V solar cells. A longer term objective in the course of the EngD project will be to investigate the radiation hardness and chemical stability of AZO in thin film CdTe solar cells on QST cover glass. This will extend a very successful collaboration between CSER and QST that has led to the first demonstration flight test of a thin film solar cell on QST cover glass on the AlSat Nano mission.

OPTIMISING OF TINPLATE PASSIVATION FOR PROCESS AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Tinplate may be around for quite a while, but is still one of the best packaging materials in terms of strength, price and recyclability. Its volume is ever growing, especially in developing countries where it is a key component in food conservation and preventing famine. The composition and use is rapidly changing in recent years: chrome-free passivation systems are being developed, new (BPA-NI) lacquers are entering the market and new techniques for tuning the iron-tin interface are researched as well.  A key component in the production turns out to be the steps between the tinplating and the application of the passivation treatment. Usually this is called the 'cleaning stage', but in fact it is a crucial step for a well performing product. Initial investigations at Tata Steel have found strong improvements by radically changing this step, but a clear reason could not be determined. Students are invited to study the cleaning stage of tinplate, changing it into a pre-passivation treatment. The entire sequence of making/characterisation/testing is at play, so expertise in electrochemistry, (electron)microscopy, lacquering & testing etc. will all be of relevance.

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE PACKAGING STEELS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
There is a need to develop high performance packaging steel to fulfil market requirements (stronger, formable, thinner). One of the directions will lead to substantial improvement in properties is steel grades with a multi-phase structure (comprising ferrite and at least one of the structure constituents martensite, bainite, and/or residual austenite). In addition, nano-precipitation could contribute extra strengthening without losing ductility. Project Aims Target properties for high performance packaging steel: Rp - 650-750 MPa and A50 > 5% in all direction after a double reduction rolling. This implies that an A50 > 35% is necessary in as-annealed state. To achieve such properties, we will look both at alloy chemistry modification and process optimization, but main focus will be on process development. Various steel chemistries will be studied in Lab-scale; rolling process (hot rolling, warm rolling or intercritical annealing before cold rolling) control will be one of the key parameters; final annealing will be carried out in temperature windows both above and below A1 transformation temperature. Possible in-line deformation can be an additional variation. Intensive microstructure/property evaluation is required for the proposed development. This will include detailed mechanical property evaluation: tensile properties, anisotropy/texture, forming failure analysis; and detailed TEM/SEM microstructure: volume fraction of multi-phases and their distribution, volume fraction of nano-strengthening particles and distribution. Prediction of mechanical properties based on microstructure information: contribution of various microstructures to strengthening/ductility, etc. 

http://www.materials-academy.co.uk/recruitment/vacancy/10

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Tata Steel Europe (TSE) is the second largest producer of pre-painted steel in Europe. To maintain this position, the organisation is constantly trying to improve the current product range, either through the development of best in class coatings for the construction industry, improved offerings in service or through added functionality. This project will look to take the latest of Colors’ new products and push the performance to greater lengths in all climates via the development of a clear, impermeable additional coating applied to the market leading pre-finished steels. The project aims are to assess various clear coat chemistries base on solvent based paints, water based coatings, PET laminates or associated technology and liquid glass type coatings. Not only will the coating chemistry be assessed and selected, coupled with the development is to assess and recommend the coating process to apply the desired chemistry. The long term effectiveness of the clear permeable coating is to be assessed for the long term effectiveness and any potential impact upon the lifetime of the base polymer. Finally, an assessment of production feasibility will be undertaken to ensure the designed product(s) can be produced using a suitable and available process.

Corrosion science of a model building to develop the next generation of prefinished steels

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Tata Steel Europe (TSE) is the second largest producer of pre-painted steel in Europe. To maintain this position, the organisation is constantly trying to improve the current product range, either through the development of best in class coatings for the construction industry, improved offerings in service or through added functionality. This project will look to build a model building with all the latest pre-finished steel technology and research the corrosion science and local microclimates of all the different elements and linking this to the polymer chemistry of the different pre-finished steel products assessed. The outcomes of this research will provide fundamental evidence to develop the product guarantees for the market leading pre-finished steels for the construction market.  The project aims to construct a model building with all the latest pre-finished steel products to develop buildings as power stations, with all common design features, components and different coating options.  The corrosivity and micro climates of all parts of the building will be assessed, compared to agreed standards and linked to the performance of the various polymer systems.  This is a unique project linking actual real life building design to measured corrosion science and providing factual evidence to develop the product guarantee 

MAKING BUILDINGS DURABLE – NEW ANTICORROSIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE LATEST GENERATION OF PREFINISHED STEELS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Tata Steel Europe (TSE) is the second largest producer of pre-painted steel in Europe. To maintain this position, the organisation is constantly trying to improve the current product range, either through the development of best in class coatings for the construction industry, improved offerings in service or through added functionality. This project will look to take the latest of Colors’ new products and develop new novel Cr-free technology for the pretreatment and primer or combined to be utilised in market leading pre-finished steels. This project will look to take the latest of Colors’ new products and develop and assess new Cr-free anti corrosive pigments as additions into the paint systems to give the end users extended durability The project aims are to develop and assess various Cr-free anti corrosive pigment types within Polyester, Polyurethane and PVC Plastisol type coating or pretreatment to increase the durability of prefinished steel. The studies will focus upon the correct formulation and assessment of the proposed anticorrosive pigments, designing suitable experimentation to evaluate the unique systems. Coupled with this, the long term effectiveness of the anticorrosive pigment should be assessed and any potential impact upon the lifetime of the carrier resin. Finally, an assessment of production feasibility will be undertaken to ensure the designed product(s) can be produced using a suitable and available process.

NEW GENERATION FOAM TO REVOLUTIONISE THE BUILDING INDUSTRY

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Tata Steel is Europe's second largest steel producer and under its Building Systems division has extensive insulating panel manufacturing capabilities throughout Europe.  The steel faced insulated panel market in the UK alone is worth over £200 million pounds p.a.  This type of product is governed by its European Standard EN 14509 and also has insurance approval requirements from both the Loss Prevention Council Board (LPCB) and FM Approvals. Tata Steel UK’s steel faced insulated panels currently have performance declarations in line with this code and are approved to both insurance bodies in line with the product use. Drivers to increase building energy efficiency, reduce fire damage and improve environmental impact over recent years has driven technology within the industry to look at ways to improve thermal performance, smoke generation and remove Halogenated fire retardants. The areas of influence for improvement are polymer matrix, cell size, cell gas composition and processing techniques. TATA Steel UK would like a research engineer to lead a project to investigate novel combinations of chemical components that will provide a product that can be easily processed, provide a similar cost base, structural and fire performance whilst being ground breaking in its ability to show a reduction in thermal transfer by approximately 20%, a lower smoke index to achieve new levels of industry performance and also a formulation which removes components that are likely to be restricted or banned in the future. The Research Engineer would have close links with the insulating panel manufacturing site in North Wales with a requirement for outcomes to be rolled out to other Building Systems panels producers in Main Land Europe. This will require research and analysis of manufacturing capabilities and legislative drivers at each site.  The research engineer would be based within Swansea University and be supported by the academic staff and have full use of the world class equipment available. This is an excellent opportunity for the Research Engineer to be at the forefront of Academic Scientific Research with strong links to Industry, resulting in a breadth of experience from both fields within a range of disciplines.

Performance of Submerged Entry Nozzle and clogging phenomena in production of clean steels

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
During continuous casting, a stopper controls steel flow by controlling the size of the opening into the mould. During this time the flow of steel is in contact with the stopper, the nozzle, and the submerged entry shroud, all refractories. In order to maintain tap temperature in the ladles, accounting for cold charging of various alloying quantities, reheating is applied by a controlled amount of exothermic reaction between Aluminium and oxygen, producing Alumina. Alumina precipitates stick to the casting refractories and agglomerate, resulting in clogging. When clogging products break off mould level surges occur, possibly resulting in casting defects. Project Aim The aim of this project is to improve understanding of the interactions between steel/clogging product/refractory, followed by testing and development of refractories that improve casting performance and stability. Working on site with the resident experts to gain insight into the physical reality of the process, you will use the state of the art laboratories to improve understanding and deliver solutions to the casters. This project will focus on the steel – refractory interaction and related development of clogging products in the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN), which transfers liquid steel from the tundish to the mould. Latest research suggests this relationship depends on condition of the inner bore surface resulting from a combination of properties of selected refractories and flow behaviour of the liquid steel. Creation of a database setting in order results of in-situ observations and post mortem analysis of retrieved SEN samples will improve understanding of the phenomena. Careful evaluation of currently monitored process parameters and collected process data will help identify Key Process Indicators throwing more light on the formation of the clogging deposits in specific locations within the SEN. Finally, detailed analysis of recent advancements in casting technology combined with industrial trials will support development of stable operation and reduction of frequency of disruptions of caster operation.

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL COATING SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE PRE AND POST HEAT-TREATMENT PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CARBON STEEL CONVEYANCE TUBES

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Tata Steel and its Tubes business manufacturers a range of conveyance products for use within HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) building and industrial services applications.  Our products are made from steel produced by Port Talbot and are fully normalised during tube manufacturing by passing them through a furnace at temperatures greater than 800degC.  Surface scaling formed during this heating operation can result in cosmetic issues which can also impact the performance of post heat-treatment ‘added value’ coatings.  Project Aims The aim of the research will be the development and validation of novel production coatings to improve the surface cosmetics and performance of HVAC pipework. The project will investigate and develop novel coatings that can be applied pre heat-treatment/normalising to control oxide formation and improve the surface finish of the hot-finished products.  Such coatings will protect the steel in the furnace and prevent oxide from forming. The coating will be produced and tested using thermogravimetric analysis and other more novel testing means in the brand new Swansea University Bay Campus Laboratories. Once the coating has been formulated, an effective application method must then be devised in order to successfully coat the tubes before entrance to the furnace. Finished products can then have a range of post heat-treatment coatings applied to improve service life, the project will also examine ‘added value’ coating options, including the use of ‘smart’ coatings to improve the performance of our conveyance tubes when in service. The activities also include working with the operations technical teams at Port Talbot, Corby and Hartlepool, other Tata Steel project students at Cranfield University and Loughborough Universities Building and Industrial Services Pipework Academy (BISPA) as well as other industrial partners located in both the UK and EU, and may require additional travel.

OPTIMISING PERFORMANCE OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS IN THE SINTER PLANT TO ADHERE TO INCREASINGLY STRINGENT ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Tata Steel Europe (TSE) is the second largest producer of pre-painted steel in Europe. To maintain this position, the organisation is constantly trying to improve the current product range, either through the development of best in class coatings for the construction industry, improved offerings in service or through added functionality. This project will look to take the latest of Colors’ new products and develop new novel Cr-free technology for the pretreatment and primer or combined to be utilised in market leading pre-finished steels. This project will look to take the latest of Colors’ new products and develop and assess new Cr-free anti corrosive pigments as additions into the paint systems to give the end users extended durability The project aims are to develop and assess various Cr-free anti corrosive pigment types within Polyester, Polyurethane and PVC Plastisol type coating or pretreatment to increase the durability of prefinished steel. The studies will focus upon the correct formulation and assessment of the proposed anticorrosive pigments, designing suitable experimentation to evaluate the unique systems. Coupled with this, the long term effectiveness of the anticorrosive pigment should be assessed and any potential impact upon the lifetime of the carrier resin. Finally, an assessment of production feasibility will be undertaken to ensure the designed product(s) can be produced using a suitable and available process.

Modelling of steel flow in continuous casting

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
TATA Steel UK Ltd is currently undergoing a huge transformation and is looking to the future with its Steel products. Steel is a 21st Century industry with research that is at the scientific and industrial forefront. A research project with TATA Steel UK and Swansea University will give the correct student the opportunity to be heavily involved with industry whilst performing high level academic research in the Swansea Bay Campus facilities. The candidate will be working with multidisciplinary teams, heading up their own research project and gaining invaluable experience at the industrial academic interface. Project Aims During continuous casting, a stopper controls steel flow by controlling the size of the opening into the mould. During this time the flow of steel is in contact with the stopper, the nozzle, and the submerged entry shroud, all refractories. In order to maintain tap temperature in the ladles, accounting for cold charging of various alloying quantities, reheating is applied by a controlled amount of exothermic reaction between Aluminium and oxygen, producing Alumina. Alumina precipitates stick to the casting refractories and agglomerate, resulting in clogging. When clogging products break off mould level surges occur, possibly resulting in casting defects. The aim of this project is to improve understanding of the interactions between steel/clogging product/refractory, followed by testing and development of refractories that improve casting performance and stability. Working on site with the resident experts to gain insight into the physical reality of the process, you will use the state of the art laboratories on campus to improve understanding and deliver solutions to the casters.

IMPROVEMENTS IN SURFACE INSPECTION SYSTEMS FOR ENHANCED UNDERSTANDING OF PROCESS PARAMETERS AFFECTING QUALITY IN HIGH VALUE ADDED AUTOMOTIVE STEELS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
TATA Steel UK Ltd is currently undergoing a huge transformation and is looking to the future with its Steel products. Steel is a 21st Century industry with research that is at the scientific and industrial forefront. A key driver from within the company is to produce high value/differentiated products, like automotive steels. A research project with TATA Steel UK and Swansea University will give the correct student the opportunity to be heavily involved with industry whilst performing high level academic research in the Swansea Bay Campus facilities. The candidate will be working with multidisciplinary teams, heading up their own research project and gaining invaluable experience at the industrial academic interface. Project Aims Surface requirements for automotive products are among the most stringent in the Strip Products orderbook and current company strategy is to increase volumes of products with stringent surface quality requirements. Compliance against customer surface standards is achieved using commercial surface inspection systems and TLR (Tata Logical Release). Quality systems can identify whether coils are compliant with a customer order, however rejection/re-work results in additional costs so it is necessary to diagnose root cause and fix. A number of defects observed in coils (such as laminations, blisters) arise from the continuous casting process but internal quality is difficult to measure. The aim of this project would be to identify and explore the influential process parameters in casting and to link these with observed surface defects in the hot mill and beyond where appropriate. The student would familiarise themselves with the steelmaking and rolling processes, as well as an in-depth understanding of data science, modelling and statistical techniques. The ideal outcome would be a usable live model which could use casting process monitoring data to predict likely surface defects/quality in the rolled product. This would allow a better understanding of slab internal quality, but also allow other possibilities such as feeding forward to downstream TLRs to indicate cutbacks and optimal application of slabs to orders based on customer quality requirements.

PELLETISATION OF FERROUS BY-PRODUCTS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
TATA Steel UK Ltd is currently undergoing a huge transformation and is looking to the future with its Steel products. Steel is a 21st Century industry with research that is at the scientific and industrial forefront. A research project with TATA Steel UK and Swansea University will give the correct student the opportunity to be heavily involved with industry whilst performing high level academic research in the Swansea Bay Campus facilities. The candidate will be working with multidisciplinary teams, heading up their own research project and gaining invaluable experience at the industrial academic interface. Project Aims Pelletising can provide a cheap and effective alternative to the sintering process. Pelletising of iron ores is well understood: the Ijmuiden pellet plant has been operational for many years. Pelletising of waste materials such as mill sludges with relatively high oil and water contents, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking slurry and blast furnace slurry is less well understood, however. The aim of the project is to optimise the pelletising process through modelling. Providing a correlation between composition, processing parameters and size/strength distribution of the pellets. In order to gain insight into the physical reality of the process, you will spend some time working on site with the pelletiser to understand the process. In order to feed the model with sensible data, you will carry out some measurements of properties of the pellets with varying compositions of binders, moisture content and other waste materials. Optimisation of the pelletising process has huge potential and contributing to the waste recovery effort is very valuable to Tata.

ENHANCING QUALITY OF HIGH VALUE ADDED STEEL THROUGH IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF WORK ROLL LIFE PERFORMANCE

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
TATA Steel UK Ltd is currently undergoing a huge transformation and is looking to the future with its Steel products. Steel is a 21st Century industry with research that is at the scientific and industrial forefront. A research project with TATA Steel UK and Swansea University will give the correct student the opportunity to be heavily involved with industry whilst performing high level academic research in the Swansea Bay Campus facilities. The candidate will be working with multidisciplinary teams, heading up their own research project and gaining invaluable experience at the industrial academic interface. Project Aims There is a driver to replace high Chromium work rolls with high strength steel (HSS) work rolls in the hot mill in order to increase roll life and product consistency. Further benefits of switching to HSS rolls are a reduced down time for roll changes, reduced grinding & refurbishing load on the mill shops and improved product quality. The bottleneck in changing all the rolls to HSS is due to reduced resistance to scale formation – 50-65C lower detrimental scale formation temperature than the Chromium counterparts. Strip surface temperature has to be kept below ~900C to prevent hard scale formation in HSS. This is difficult to achieve in the earlier stands of the hot mill especially on products which require higher reheat temperatures for metallurgical/rollability reasons. The aim of the project is to improve understanding of the conditions required for soft oxide formation as well as the development of economically viable HSS compositions that would help improve performance.

VALUE GENERATION BY RECOVERING BY PRODUCTS FROM STEEL MAKING PROCESSES

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
TATA Steel UK Ltd is currently undergoing a huge transformation and is looking to the future with its Steel products. Steel is a 21st Century industry with research that is at the scientific and industrial forefront. There is a requirement to improve processes for both financial and environmental gains. A research project with TATA Steel UK and Swansea University will give the correct student the opportunity to be heavily involved with industry whilst performing high level academic research in the Swansea Bay Campus facilities. The candidate will be working with multidisciplinary teams, heading up their own research project and gaining invaluable experience at the industrial academic interface. Project Aims This project can take one of two directions: dezincification of BOS dusts: Steel making dusts generated by the BOS process have historically been stockpiled in Port Talbot steel works due to its high zinc content (5 – 10%) which inhibits it from being recycled in the blast furnaces. As these steel making dusts contain approx. 50% Fe, there are significant financial as well as environmental benefits to be gained from processing legacy BOS dust by removing/reducing its zinc content (<0.1%). The Fe recovered from legacy stock piles of BOS dust can be recycled within the ironmaking process, reducing the demand to purchase expensive sintering ores or iron ore pellets. In addition, removal of zinc offers further financial benefits if it can be captured and sold to zinc smelters. You will be working on the development of an effective process for zinc removal, creating highly metallised Fe and Zn. evolution of oils from hot mill sludge pellets:Hot mill sludge pellets contain approximately 6% oil, originating from a mixture of gear box and lubricating oils. The sludge is mixed with a binder and possibly with other recovered material from various steelmaking processes. In the blast furnace, the pellets gradually swell and release the oil. Depending on the composition and processing of the pellets, they will behave differently. The primary aim of the project is to understand the way the oil and pellet properties evolve in the high temperature reducing atmosphere of the blast furnace subject to the process route & composition. Combining work on site with the pelletiser and with the state of the art equipment made available in Swansea University, you will help develop a greater understanding of the pelletising process and their behaviour in the blast furnace so as to optimise the process.

TAILORED TECHNOLOGIES FOR HOT STAMPED AUTOMOTIVE BODY IN WHITE APPLICATIONS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Hot stamping has escalated rapidly in the automotive industry over the past decade to supersede conventional cold stamping for forming of safety-critical structural parts constituting the Body in White (BiW). In the traditional hot stamping process, the strip steel blank is furnace-heated to 900-950 oC with this temperature maintained for 3-5 minutes to achieve a homogenous austenitic microstructure, the blank is transferred from furnace to forming tool in ~ 10 seconds, stamped into the part geometry at transient temperatures of 850-550 oC while in the austenite phase and then diequenched to near-ambient temperature and the martensite phase while constrained in the forming tool. Hot stamping enables forming of complex part geometries, down-gauging (lightweighting), eliminated springback (dimensional accuracy) and enhanced crashworthiness. Novel tailored technologies include tailored heating (where regions of the blank are omitted from complete austenisation so to locally retain ferrite in the final part), tailored quenching (where regions of the part are cooled with retarded cooling rates so to locally promote ferrite formation) and tailored blanks (where banks are constituted by two different strip steel chemistries exhibiting different degrees of hardenability so to locally promote ferrite formation). Tailored technologies give rise to tailored mechanical properties in different regions of the final part to ensure the right material is in the right place for optimal crash-management. Project Aims The objective of the research project will be to develop novel tailored technologies for hot stamped automotive BiW applications to enhance down-gauging and crashworthiness. The project will contribute directly to New Product Development and Customer Technical Service activities at Tata Steel Europe, providing the customer of Tata Steel Europe with high-value added products and application support services. The project will involve development of novel tailored technologies currently under patent application at Tata Steel Europe, invention of original tailored technologies, use of state-of-the-art research facilities including anisothermal hot tensile testing and a laboratory hot stamping line for physical simulation of tailored technologies; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for microstructural characterisation of the tailored technologies; and high strain rate tensile testing for crashworthiness characterisation of the tailored technologies. The ultimate target is full-scale industrial trials from hot stamping (to be conducted by customers of Tata Steel Europe) through to final tailored part crashworthiness testing.

PHYSICAL & NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HOT DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR IN ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEELS UNDER HOT STAMPING CONDITIONS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Hot stamping has escalated rapidly in the automotive industry over the past decade to supersede conventional cold stamping for forming of safety-critical structural parts constituting the Body in White (BiW). In the traditional hot stamping process, the strip steel blank is furnace-heated to 900-950 oC with this temperature maintained for 3-5 minutes to achieve a homogenous austenitic microstructure, the blank is transferred from furnace to forming tool in ~ 10 seconds, stamped into the part geometry at transient temperatures of 850-550 oC while in the austenite phase and then die-quenched to near-ambient temperature and the martensite phase while constrained in the forming tool. The advantage of hot stamping over conventional cold stamping is the unique combination of formability in the austenitic blank, ultra high strength in the martensitic final part and elimination of springback. Hot stamping enables forming of complex part geometries, down-gauging (lightweighting), dimensional accuracy and enhanced crashworthiness. The traditional Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) strip product for automotive hot stamping applications is 22MnB5, exhibiting ~ 1500 MPa ultimate tensile strength and ~ 6 % total elongation in the final part. With increasingly stringent carbon dioxide exhaust emission legislation demanding further down-gauging, combined with increasingly stringent legislative and consumer crashworthiness standards, novel UHSS strip products for automotive hot stamping applications are under development, exhibiting higher total elongation of > 14 % and yet higher ultimate tensile strength of > 2000 MPa in the final part. Meanwhile, novel hot stamping process technologies include tailored heating, tailored quenching and tailored blanks exhibiting tailored microstructures and mechanical properties in different regions of the final part for optimal crash-management. Project Aims The objective of the research project will be to support development of novel UHSS strip products for automotive hot stamping applications through developing novel constitutive multiscale numerical models that simulate hot deformation behaviour of the novel UHSS strip products under hot stamping conditions. This will enable fundamental understanding of how the novel UHSS strip products behave during the hot stamping stage of the hot stamping process, where complex anisothermal-, strain hardening-, strain rate- and microstructural-phenomena take place and where insufficient understanding of these phenomena can lead to forming defects such as wrinkling, non-symmetric drawing, thinning, cracking and splitting; in addition to mechanical properties in the final part that do not meet specifications set by the customer. The project will contribute directly to New Product Development and Customer Technical Service activities at Tata Steel Europe, providing the customer of Tata Steel Europe with high-value added products and application support services. The project will initially involve physical simulation of the hot stamping process, where state-of-the-art research facilities will be utilised, including isothermal and anisothermal hot tensile testing over a range of temperatures, cooling rates and strain rates; in addition to in-situ hot stage Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). An important aspect of the project will be development of hot tensile testing specimen geometries and techniques to ensure homogenous temperature distribution and acquisition of accurate stress-strain data. The project will subsequently involve analysis of existing numerical models that have been developed to simulate hot deformation behaviour of existing strip steel products such as 22MnB5; and then constitutive iteration to develop novel numerical models that provide numerical simulations of improved accuracy and moreover, with novel UHSS strip products. There will be an emphasis on multiscale – linking characteristics at the atomic- (crystal structure), microscopic- (phase) and macroscopic- (mechanical property) scales.

ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEELS FOR ROLL FORMED AUTOMOTIVE BODY IN WHITE APPLICATIONS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
With increasing demands for lightweighting and crashworthiness from automotive customers, the application of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) strip products to the automotive Body in White (BiW) is increasing rapidly. Higher tensile strength compared to conventional High Strength Steel (HSS) strip products and also compared to non-ferrous alloys such as aluminium-based alloy strip products, permits down-gauging (lightweighting) while simultaneously providing improved crashworthiness. However, due to the immense strength and limited ductility, a challenge of UHSS is forming the strip product into the final part geometry. To overcome this challenge, roll forming has gained much interest in recent years as an effective alternative to conventional cold stamping, enabling tighter bending radii, greater down-gauging and reduced springback. Moreover, as a cold continuous incremental process, roll forming is a cost-effective alternative. While it is considered that homogenous microstructure, high uniform elongation, high proof strength to ultimate tensile strength ratio, low bend ratio and high hole-expansion capacity lead to optimal roll formability, the exact microstructure-mechanical property characteristics that lead to optimal roll formability are weakly understood. Moreover, the application of roll formed UHSS strip products to the automotive BIW is also weakly understood, even by leading automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). Project Aim The objective of the research project will be to develop novel UHSS strip products for roll formed automotive BiWapplications through determining the microstructure-mechanical property characteristics that lead to optimal rollformability, combined with final part crashworthiness. This will include fundamental understanding of how, down to the nano-scale, UHSS strip products behave during the roll forming process, where complex stress-strain states exist and where, such stress-strain states are not as well understood compared to conventional stamping processes. Such understanding will enable design of novel UHSS strip products which exhibit optimal roll formability. The project will include a combination of product design and process design. Product design will focus on alloy design within the steelmaking and strip processing capabilities of Tata Steel Europe’s Port Talbot site. Process design will focus on optimising the parameters of strip processing so that desired microstructural evolution (and corresponding mechanical properties) are produced for optimal roll formability, combined with final part crashworthiness. The project will contribute directly to New Product Development and Customer Technical Service activities at Tata Steel Europe, providing the customer of Tata Steel Europe with high-value added products and application support services. The project will involve alloy design, laboratory slab casting and laboratory strip processing of novel experimental alloys to optimise microstructural evolution and mechanical properties, where state-of-the-art research facilities will be utilised, including 3-dimensional Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive xraySpectroscopy (EDS) to characterise microstructural features down to the nano-scale. The ultimate target is full-scale industrial trials from steelmaking through to roll forming and final part crashworthiness testing.

HOT ROLLING OPTIMISATION OF ELECTRICAL STEELS FOR AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR GENERATOR UNIT APPLICATIONS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
With increasingly stringent greenhouse gas exhaust emission legislation, alternative powertrains from the conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) have gained much interest in recent years. Two leading alternative powertrains are fully-electric and ICE-electric hybrid. The rise of these alternative powertrain technologies has been fuelled greatly by motorsport, with ICE-electric hybrid powertrains established in Formula 1 from 2009, while Formula E, contested by fully-electric powertrains, was established in 2014. Moreover, these alternative powertrain technologies developed at the pinnacle of motorsport have filtered down to the production passenger car, with numerous automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) offering ICE-electric hybrid and even fully-electric powered vehicles. The core of the electric Motor Generator Unit (MGU) is manufactured from strip Non-Grain Orientated (NGO) Electrical Steel. Hot rolled strip NGO Electrical Steels are manufactured by Tata Steel Europe at the Port Talbot site. Subsidiary of Tata Steel Europe, Cogent Power, then completes strip steel processing, with hot-band annealing, cold rolling to gauges down to 0.1 mm, final annealing, coating, cutting to size, stamping to part geometry and stacking to produce the final laminates for application to the MGU. Magnetic properties and mechanical properties are both of utmost importance to Electrical Steels for MGU applications. Electrical efficiency of the MGU depends on magnetic properties of the strip steel, with high magnetic flux important for maximum torque at low speeds and low eddy current losses important for maximum power at high speeds. Meanwhile, rotational stresses within the MGU demand that the strip steel exhibits sufficient mechanical strength, where such rotational stresses increase as higher power output is demanded, with the MGU operating at up to 16,000 rpm. This creates a challenge given that all fundamental microstructural strengthening mechanism, including solid solution strengthening, precipitation strengthening, grain boundary strengthening and secondary phase strengthening, are detrimental to magnetic properties, increasing eddy current losses and decreasing power output from the MGU. Project Aims The objective of the research project will be to develop NGO Electrical Steels for automotive MGU applications. This will focus on optimising hot rolling parameters and resulting hot-band microstructural characteristics for optimal microstructural evolution during down-stream strip processing and in turn, for optimal magnetic and mechanical properties in the MGU. Hot rolling parameters will include hot rolling stress-strain states, hot rolling strains, hot rolling strain rates, hot rolling temperatures, hot-band gauge, finishing temperature, run-out-table cooling path and coiling temperature. Characterising and correlating microstructural distributions to final magnetic and mechanical properties will be of high interest, where microstructural evolution is known to be different through hot-band gauge, with different local stress-strain states and temperatures resulting in different grain sizes, grain orientations and defect densities between strip surface and strip centre. The project will contribute directly to New Product Development activities at Tata Steel Europe, providing the customer of Tata Steel Europe with high-value added products. The project will involve laboratory hot rolling simulations where a wide range of process variables will be investigated, followed by standardised laboratory down-stream strip processing simulations and then microstructural, magnetic and mechanical property characterisation of the final strip product. State-of-the-art research facilities will be utilised, including anisothermal hot tensile / compression testing, laboratory hot mill, 3-dimensional Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The ultimate target is full-scale industrial trials from steelmaking through to performance testing of the MGU.

GALVANISED ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEELS FOR COLD FORMED AUTOMOTIVE BODY IN WHITE APPLICATIONS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
With increasing demands for lightweighting and crashworthiness from automotive customers, the application of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) strip products to the automotive Body in White (BiW) is increasing rapidly. Such UHSS strip products include Dual Phase (DP), Complex Phase (CP) and TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels. These steels, characterised by multiphase microstructures with phases exhibiting distinctly different mechanical properties, from soft and ductile proeutectoid ferrite to hard and brittle martensite, are recognised for their excellent cold formability, particularly by cold stamping processes. Excellent formability permits down-gauging (lightweighting) while not compromising forming limits, while the ultra high strength permits down-gauging (lightweighting) while simultaneously providing improved crashworthiness compared to conventional High Strength Steels (HSS). However, due to potential for corrosion, strip steel products are expected to be galvanised (or galvannealed) for many BiW applications. Tata Steel Europe currently operates one hot-dip galvanising line in the UK at its Llanwern site, where cold rolled strip steel substrate is continuously annealed before hot-dipping in a molten zinc bath at the end of the line. One challenge that is presented by galvanised UHSS strip products is achieving the desired continuous annealing cycle so to produce the desired microstructural evolution (and corresponding mechanical properties) within the time-temperature constraints of the hot-dip galvanising line. Another challenge is that certain cold rolled (uncoated) UHSS strip products that have gained much interest in recent years, contain up to 1.5 wt% silicon, but such silicon content leads to surface-bound silicate formation which impedes wetting and adhesion of the zinc coating to the substrate. Project Aim The objective of the research project will be to develop novel galvanised UHSS strip products for cold formed automotive BiW applications. This will include a combination of product design and process design. Product design will focus on alloy design within the steelmaking and upstream strip processing (hot rolling & cold rolling) capabilities of Tata Steel Europe’s Port Talbot site. Process design will focus on optimising the parameters of the hot-dip galvanising line so that desired microstructural evolution (and corresponding mechanical properties) are produced in the galvanised UHSS strip product. The project will contribute directly to New Product Development activities at Tata Steel Europe, providing the customer of Tata Steel Europe with high-value added products. The project will involve alloy design, laboratory slab casting and laboratory strip processing of novel experimental alloys; and then laboratory hot-dip galvanising simulations to optimise microstructural evolution and mechanical properties. State-of-the-art research facilities will be utilised, including 3-dimensional Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive xray Spectroscopy (EDS) to characterise microstructural evolution down to the nano-scale. The ultimate target is full-scale industrial trials from steelmaking through to hot-dip galvanising.

UPSCALING ORGANIC PV

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Solution processed organic solar cells are attracting extensive interest as a next generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. They are promising alternatives to conventional silicon PV’s due to their compatibility with high throughput, low CAPEX print-based manufacturing, ease of product integration, flexibility, low weight and ability to operate in outdoor and indoor lighting conditions. They are under development initially for applications ranging from indoor energy harvesting (e.g. for powering autonomous wireless sensors) to off-grid charging of for example lighting in developing countries (displacing dangerous and environmentally damaging kerosene lamps), with the longer term aim of building integrated PV applications. Organic solar cells have undergone significant improvements in their performance with their efficiencies increasing from12% in the past decade, achieving the threshold for commercial viability. This improvement has been primarily driven by advances in the donor material design, with the relatively high cost fullerene derivative PCBM the most dominant accepter material. Very recently, the emergence of a range of novel non-fullerene accepter materials has led further breakthroughs in the development of solution processed organic solar cells. Compared to their fullerene-based counterpart, these materials show great promise in achieving superior device performance and lifetimes with significantly reduce device fabrication cost. Project Aims The main aim of this EngD studentship is to identify and address major challenges toward the commercialisation of low cost, efficient and stable solution processed non-fullerene based organic solar cells, aiming for both high quality scientific publications and industrial exploitation. Working closely with academic and industrial partners including in particular Eight19 Ltd and Imperial College London, this studentship will address the following broad research topics. Specific priorities and objectives will be agreed annually in discussion with Eight19 and reviewed at project progress meetings. Stability. The typically limited operating lifetimes have been identified as a major challenge for the commercialisation of solution processed organic solar cells, with fullerene-induced instability of particular concern. The use of non-fullerene accepters instead of fullerenes in organic solar cells creates further opportunities toward addressing the stability challenge of organic solar cells, with for example, numerous studies already reporting superior lifetimes under ambient exposure or thermal stress conditions. This research topic will include identifying the degradation mechanisms of different types of non-fullerene accepters, in combination with a range of donor materials (using a range of advanced characterisation techniques such as FTIR, Raman, XPS, Mass Spectroscopy, etc), understanding how this relates to device performance under real operating conditions (using advanced device characterisation techniques such as TAS and TPV/CE etc), advanced device stability testing under controlled (isolated+mixed) environmental conditions, as well as developing devices with improved operating stability (e.g. through materials/device engineering). Processing. The commercialisation of solution processed organic solar cells requires large area processing methods such as roll-coating and screen printing. A key requirement for such processing methods is the ability to achieve relatively high film thicknesses (from sub-micron to micron) in order to overcome the typically rough substrate interfaces and eliminate film defects (e.g. pinholes), yet without compromising device performance. This research topic will focus on investigating the impact of film thickness upon device operations and identifying potential limiting factors (e.g. ideality factor, doping levels etc) for thick devices from both materials and devices levels, as well as understanding how this thickness dependence relates to the performance of solution processed non-fullerene based organic solar cells under operating conditions. Applications. Solution processed organic solar cells have extraordinary potential for low light level (e.g. indoor) PV applications compared to conventional silicon based PV technologies. The emergence of novel non-fullerene PV accepters provides further opportunities for this target application, particularly owing to their significantly enhanced light harvesting capabilities and improved ambient environment stability compared to fullerene accepters. This research topic will focus on evaluating the potential of various types of non-fullerene PV accepters for low light applications.

THE EFFECT OF HEATING & COOLING RATES DURING HEAT TREATMENT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF GRAIN-ORIENTED ELECTRICAL STEELS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Cogent Orb produces a full range of grain oriented electrical steels which are typically used in energy efficient transformers and large high performance generators. The process starts with hot rolled coil supplied with a silicon content between 3.0 wt. % and 3.2 wt. % produced via thin slab casting and connected hot rolling. After receipt at Orb, the hot rolled coil is annealed, pickled, cold reduced, decarburised and nitrided, batch annealed, coated and thermally flattened to give the product its intended magnetic properties. This project will investigate the effect of heating and cooling rates during the annealing pickling and decarbursing annealing processes and focus on the best magnetic grade GO products from hot rolled substrate produced via thin slab routes. This project allows the successful candidate to experience work within the steel industry and generate new knowledge required for successful supply of the most challenging grain oriented electrical steel grades. This project will involve investigations into effect of process conditions in both annealing stages on final magnetic properties and microstructure with the prospect of rapidly implementing findings into the manufacturing process.

THE EFFECT OF HEATING & COOLING RATES DURING HEAT TREATMENT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF NON-ORIENTED ELECTRICAL STEELS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Cogent Surahammar produces a full range of non-oriented electrical steels which are typically used in rotating machines of all sizes, small transformers and a wide range of electromagnetic applications including hybrid car motors and wind turbines. The process starts with hot rolled coil supplied to a range of specifications with silicon content between 1.2 and 3.2 wt. % produced via thick and thin slab casting processes. The hot rolled coil is then annealed, pickled, cold reduced, further annealed and coated to give the product its intended magnetic properties. This project will investigate the effect of heating and cooling rates during the annealing pickling and decarburising annealing processes and focus on the best magnetic grade NGO products from hot rolled substrate produced via the thick slab route. This project allows the successful candidate to experience work within the steel industry and generate new knowledge required for successful supply of the most challenging non-oriented electrical steel grades. This project will involve investigations into effect of process conditions on final magnetic properties and microstructure with the prospect of rapidly implementing findings into the manufacturing process.

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN AND ADDITIVE MANUFACTURE OF AUTOMOTIVE CRASH COMPONENTS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE SPORTS CARS

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
The Ferrari Body in White team aims to research the potential of designing lighter crash structures that take advantage of the benefits of additive manufacture. For this, following an initial concept development, the project will involve intensive, large scale engineering simulations to drive the optimal design of the crash absorbing structures using high performance computation. Verification of the new concepts will be done using in-house additive manufacturing which allows building lightweight, complex shaped structures using minimal material. Project Aims Starting from an established, well known design solution, the aim of this project is to completely re-think and re-design a crash absorbing component. The final structure will be fully optimised in terms of energy absorbed per kg  mass by taking full advantage of intensive computer modelling and of the opportunities afforded by additive manufacturing. It is anticipated that the candidate will cover the following aspects in relation to the project: Evaluation of requirements and existing solutions Concept development and identification of further application within the Body In White perimeter Design refinement and material definition Material characterization/qualification Design for manufacture and manufacturing challenges Parts prototyping Tests and model verification  

CORROSION STUDY OF F1E SHAFT STEEL

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
F1E is a novel Maraging steel developed between Rolls-Royce and Cambridge University for application to mainline shafts. Specifically the alloy was developed to provide a similar temperature capability to the current shaft steel Super CMV, but with a UTS strength comparable to the alloy AerMet 100 which has a maximum temperature capability of 300 degrees Centigrade. The original aim of the project was, therefore, to develop a steel which could be applied to the full length of the Low Pressure Turbine shaft, rather than the current Trent 1000 solution which is to inertia weld AerMet 100 to Super CMV to provide the high fatigue strength at the spline end and a higher temperature capability at the cone end of the shaft. A potentail advantage of F1E compared with Super CMV and AerMet 100 is that the material has demonstrated quite good corrosion resistance with a pitting potential comparable to 17-4PH steel which is currently used in our engines without the requirement for corrosion protection. The challenge, therefore, is to assess whether F1E could also be used in the engine without the benefit of a protective paint, bearing in mind that the LPT shaft is a critical part and would, therefore, have to demonstrate a safe cyclic life. Project Aims To understand how F1E will corrode in service environment, including the influence of temperature and humidity, plus role of contaminants such as salts and oil. Would need to look at corrosion formation both on unprotected steel and protected steel, including REACH compliant protective coatings and simple non-sacrificial barrier coatings. Work would need to include observation of potential synergy between loading cycle and pit progression. The loading conditions should consider representative stresses rather than just those that would initiate failure in a convenient number of cycles.

DAMAGE TOLERANCE STUDY OF F1E SHAFT STEEL

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
F1E is a novel Maraging steel developed between Rolls-Royce and Cambridge University for application to mainline shafts. Specifically, the alloy was developed to provide a similar temperature capability to the current shaft steel Super CMV, but with a UTS strength comparable to the alloy AerMet 100 which has a maximum temperature capability of 300 degrees Centigrade. The original aim of the project was, therefore, to develop a steel which could be applied to the full length of the Low Pressure Turbine shaft, rather than the current Trent 1000 solution which is to inertia weld AerMet 100 to Super CMV to provide the high fatigue strength at the spline end and a higher temperature capability at the cone end of the shaft. A major challenge of using ultra-high strength steels for highly stressed aero-engine components is the so called "damage tolerance" life which is actually a fracture mechanics life based on the assumption that a flaw initiates in fatigue from the first engine cycle. Because ultra-high strength steels usually have relatively high fatigue crack propagation rates and low fracture toughness then the calculated fracture mechanics life at the high component stresses is typically a low number of engine cycles compared with the shop visit interval. In order to mitigate the outcome from this simple fracture mechanics approach then Rolls-Royce has investigated a number of more complex approaches which are based around a combination of real observed flaw sizes and actual initiation lives which are required for a fatigue crack to grow. This has also been combined with a probabilistic approach which recognizes that in reality only a small number of components exhibit actual flaws, whether this be associated with as manufactures components or service related damage which might be incurred. Historically for shafts the damage tolerance approach has been a subtly different fracture mechanics approach based on an assumption that when the loading due to the high cycle fatigue portion of the cycle exceeds the fatigue crack growth threshold then the damage tolerance life has been exhausted; this assumes that the crack initiates from the first engine cycle and then propagates due to low cycle fatigue only up until this point.    Project Aims To understand the effect of the complex loading cycle applied to low pressure turbine shafts during service operation on the fracture mechanics behaviour of F1E. This will include investigation into how fatigue crack growth threshold is influenced by R-ratio, temperature, and superimposed high cycle fatigue loading. Would also include investigation into effect of torsional loading cycle including fracture surfaces from actual spline rig tests which have included torsion and tension low cycle fatigue with super-imposed torsion and bending high cycle fatigue. For scenario of propagating crack, propose to investigate the effect of dwell on load and also regular overload cycles on crack propagation rates. Investigation would include both Super CMV and AerMet 100 as baseline materials for comparison.

MATERIAL AND MECHANICAL CHARATERISATION OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED ALLOYS FOR THE NUCLEAR SECTOR

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
The use of additive manufacturing (AM) is under consideration for nuclear reactor plant components. AM has several advantages over conventional manufacturing routes, especially when production is limited to relatively low volumes. Notably, it is possible to construct complex near net shape geometries with reduced time and cost. Three alloys have been identified as potential candidates to be manufactured by selective laser melting. There are multiple engineering challenges associated with the introduction of these alloys as replacements to conventionally manufactured parts in the conservative nuclear industry. Project Aims The objective of this project is to support on-going efforts to investigate the potential introduction of laser melted materials to plant. Specifically, S32205 duplex stainless steel, nickel alloy 625 and 316L stainless steel in both heat treated and as-built conditions will be investigated. The work may include the development and carrying out of novel high temperature mechanical tests, metallurgical and microstructural investigation, finite element analysis, data correlation and results interpretation. Current challenges include a lack of understanding of microstrucural behaviour during materials deposition, distortion, cracking and delamination due to residual stress, grain morphology and mechanical properties of the materials in the as-built condition. Rolls-Royce plc will provide material and data to support the research. It is expected that the work will closely follow the nuclear AM programme and AM process modelling underway at the Rolls-Royce facility in Raynesway, Derby. Swansea University's experience with Small Punch testing for tensile and fracture behaviour as well as the extensive metallurgical and microscopy facilities are essential for the success of the project. 

COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR STEEL PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF THEIR IMPACT ON POWER GRID OPERATION AT TATA STEEL AND IN SOUTH WALES

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
TATA Steel Europe is the second steel manufacturer in Europe with steelmaking facilities located at Port Talbot, as well as steel coating and processing facilities across the UK. With the scope to minimize cost, improve efficiency and reduce carbon emissions, TATA Steel has been investigating upgrades to the power system in the Port Talbot Area. These upgrades include the replacement of obsolete power components, enhancement of the interface with the HV network and installation of current limiting reactors. The proposed project fits into the ongoing strategic investigation into the future of steel production in the UK, which needs to determine if steel should be 100% recycled or continued to be made from raw materials. The choice for the steel industry is thus to produce steel via the conventional blast furnace route or invest in electric arc furnaces. Conversion to electric arc would necessitate radical changes to both the electrical demand and supply characteristics of the steel works. It is therefore imperative that the electrical system is modelled to understand the effect of using arc furnaces on the internal supply grid and on the surrounding power system. The project will articulate in three main tasks: Modelling the existing power system configuration with blast furnaces and validate the model against available data. The model will include Tata steel power plant and the surrounding power system and the data will be provided by the industry sponsor and by local utilities.  Model different types of units which are considered for steel production. At the moment, the following alternatives are under consideration: replacement of the Blast furnaces with electric arc, addition of other blast furnace units to the existing ones or the replacement of the current plant with a HISARNA one. Other configurations may be considered based on the availability of different technologies at the time of the study. In parallel to the power system studies, the project will also investigate the replacement of the metering system which has become obsolete. Different metering topologies will be considered and their compliance with legislation will be verified. Based on technical an economical analysis, the optimised metering strategy will be recommended. Project Aims The main aims of the projects are: To develop and validate a comprehensive computer model of the TATA steel power plant (LV network) To evaluate the impact of the proposed technology for steel production on the voltage profiles and fault levels by means of load flow studies To calculate harmonic levels and identify possible resonance conditions by means of harmonic studies To evaluate the cost of the different solutions available to replace the existing blast furnace To perform real time simulations of the proposed system configuration To recommend a new metering system compliant with legislation

MANAGEMENT SCHEMES FOR COOPERATION BETWEEN RENEWABLE AND FOSSIL-FUELLED GENERATORS OF STEEL INDUSTRY

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Tata Steel Europe (TSE) is the second largest producer of pre-finished steel in Europe. To support this production of steel requires a significant electricity supply and a massive and sophisticated electricity network. In order to service and distribute, there are a number of key sub-stations that receive High Voltage (HV) electricity from the National grid and Western Power Distribution, that share site electrical demand with existing internal generation at Margam A, B & C power plants. Three of the existing 11kV Margam generators (i.e. A2, A3 & B1) and all 8MW sets are at end of life, and in excess of sixty years old. These three units are planned to be replaced with a single modern 30MW steam turbo generator plant, and integrated into the existing 11kV network infrastructure, with minimal disruption or upgrade of existing HV equipment. Generator integration modelling and a stability studies are required, to establish accurate electrical equipment specifications for sizing, procurement, installation & implementation. This project will: Review and improve/develop a new software based model that will be used for examining generator and HV network configuration, sizing options and integration for new power plant equipment. Develop a model of the power generation infrastructure, so that the electrical performance and efficiency of the plant can be accurately simulated. Review all of the electrical measurement and monitoring that is currently undertaken at the power plant, and examine how the data is used to assess plant performance e.g. efficiencies. From this make recommendations to improve measurement/monitoring and data analysis to enable plant electrical performance to be optimised. Develop and recommend electrical specifications for new 30MW power generation ‎equipment for an optimised operation and future expansion. Propose and investigate different control paradigms for the new 30MW generator. This could be the conventional droop control algorithm, where, frequency and voltage are controlled using active and reactive powers through the Governor and AVR systems, or a buffered control using a power electronic converter which sets the active and reactive power demands from the generator. Investigate the integration and management of renewable energy (solar, wind, and tidal) within TATA Steel electricity network. Different scenarios considering the generation and demand profiles will be analysed and simulated in order to propose an optimised energy management mechanism to minimise imported active and reactive power from the HV network, while a high quality supply of energy is maintained. Project Aims The electricity networks both within (i.e. the LV network) and on the HV side of TATA Steel-Port Talbot site have been subject to massive changes, such as: rapid increase in penetration of renewable generation (both wind and solar), plan to build Swansea Tidal Lagoon, plan to replace the old fossil fuelled generators with a modern 30MW steam turbo generator, and plan to replace gas furnaces with electrical furnaces.  Although these changes, in the long term, will benefit both TATA Steel and the region through reducing emission and widening the supply chain for electrical energy, they require meticulous investigation and planning in order to predict challenges and plan for an optimised cooperation between TATA Steel internal electricity generation and imported energy from the HV network. To achieve this, the following studies must be carried out: A comprehensive Fault Level analysis considering current and future load profiles, different grid connection configurations, and different ‎generator control schemes.‎ Different LV generation scenarios must be investigated. These scenarios, for example, include: utilising Swansea Tidal Lagoon to directly supply energy into TATA Steel network, and installation of Photovoltaic systems. The effects of using renewable energy on power quality of both LV and HV networks and methods of mitigating them must be investigated. These power quality issues include: Power Factor, voltage and frequency deviations, and harmonics content of the LV network. The effects of different generator control paradigms and grid connection configurations on power quality and energy management must be investigated.

NUMERICAL PROPERTY PREDICTION OF MATERIALS PROCESSED VIA POWDER BED FUSION ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

Application closing date 31 March 2017, employment start date 2 October 2017
Materials and Manufacturing Academy (M2A)
Swansea University
Additive Manufacturing offers designers and manufacturer unique capability opening doors that were not available for traditional manufacturing processes. Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing in particular enables net shape manufacturing of very complex shapes with functional design or functional materials. The wide spread of additive manufacturing is however hampered by the lack of repeatability and the expenses related to qualifying the feed stock, the manufacturing processes and the final product. ESI Group has developed a multi scale multi physics simulation platform enabling the modelling of powder scale processes predicting melt pool behavior, the thermal cycle and solidification. Work piece scale models predict residual stresses and distortions. Within the frame work of this research the gap between these scales is to be closed by using the microscale information to provide the properties needed for macroscale models. The final goal is to provide a complete solution describing the manufacturing process details leading to the final work piece. The numerically predicted work piece characteristics will then include: Residual stresses, final distortion and as-built material properties. Tools available include the powder scale models that provide the thermal history of the material in domains comparable in size to the melt pool, thermal models that allow the prediction of the thermal history throughout the work piece and the residual stress / distortion models. Project Aims The focus will be the development of suitable models that describe phase transformations and the expected material properties for non-equilibrium rapid solidification and coupling them corresponding models available within ESI-AM. The models will be validated separately prior to implementing them in the industrial platform and demonstrating the complete numerical chain.

Save the date: AEngD annual conference 2017 will be on 29 November

(03 March 2017) - The next national conference of the Association of Engineering Doctorates will be held at the British Library …

EngD graduate named in Forbes 30 Under 30 Europe

(26 January 2017) - EngD graduate Marek Kubik has been named in the second Forbes 30 Under 30 Europe listing for his ground-brea…

EngD alumnus appointed AEngD vice-chair

(23 January 2017) - Dr Steven Yeomans, an EngD graduate, an ardent advocate of the EngD programme, and manager of the CICE EngD …